China's logistics costs are too high the status quo has not
Article Author：admin Upload updated：2017-08-09
China's high cost of logistics has not changed the status quo has become a fatal bottleneck in the production and marketing links.
Overall, China's logistics costs account for 18% of GDP, 10 percentage points higher than in developed countries.For manufacturers, the logistics costs can be up to 30% to 40% of production costs.
According to the National Development and Reform Commission statistics, from January to October this year, the total cost of social logistics is still a substantial increase, a total of 6.4 trillion yuan, up 18.7% year on year.Among them, the transportation costs of 3.3 trillion yuan, an increase of 15.6%; custody costs increased by 23.4%, management costs increased by 18.7%.At the same time, the logistics market prices are still low.
One of the reasons why China's logistics costs are high is that the whole industry is more dispersed.At present, logistics companies can be divided into foreign, state and private three categories.Such as the road transport market has been around 2005 for all types of enterprises open, highly competitive.In the air market, foreign-funded enterprises are still subject to greater restrictions.
Sample one: Shandong into Beijing cabbage logistics costs over 6 into
The new wholesale market, bear more than 70% of the daily supply of vegetables in Beijing.These mainly from Hebei, Shandong, Inner Mongolia and other surrounding areas of vegetables, logistics costs in the end how high?
Each vegetable, different origin logistics costs are different, and with the seasons, changes in labor costs and significant fluctuations, it is difficult to have accurate data.
Obviously, the higher the value of the food, the proportion of logistics costs will be lower, such as cabbage, such as the winter road, the proportion of logistics costs will be high.This year, cabbage prices lower, Hebei area of cabbage into a new supply to the main, businesses are more from Shouguang transport value higher, relatively low logistics cost of green boutique vegetables supply Beijing.
High-speed road green channel on the transport of vegetables to avoid crossing the tolls, the new market to eight kinds of road vegetables, four kinds of major fruit free admission fee, Beijing is to reduce the cost of vegetable logistics initiatives, and showed a significant effect.But overall, the field of vegetables to Beijing's logistics costs are still high.
Sample two: coal from the origin to Beijing prices can be doubled
Beijing-Tibet Expressway, coal truck truck-intensive, easily blocked several days of congestion to the past the driver unbearable.But today, this coal transport channel and no better alternative path, high coal prices will become a lot of coal-fired boiler users heart disease.
Last year, China's coal production of about 3.2 billion tons, the vast majority of origin concentrated in Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and other regions, the need for cross-regional long-distance transport of coal more than 1.6 billion tons, but the railway can arrange capacity of only 800 million tons, which means About half of the coal can only rely on inefficient road transport.Li Ting believes that, like China, long-distance large quantities of coal, iron ore transport a lot of dependence on the road, very unreasonable, the key issue is the railway development is too late.
Sample three: courier year up service did not improve
At the end of this year, large-scale electricity online shopping promotion wave after wave of wave.From the "double eleven" to "double twelve", the country's major courier companies to respond to the rush to the online shopping dispatch single and exhausted.
Aware of the logistics short board limited Taobao, Jingdong and other large electric business, has begun self-built logistics system.Among them, Taobao plans and partners to spend tens of billions of dollars to build logistics warehousing and information system.
Xu Yan, chief analyst of the express inquiry network, with the relevant laws and regulations and standards continue to improve, the extensive application of information technology, increasing costs and profits tend to average, courier companies do not scale to survive and develop.Is expected in the next 5 years will have more than 50% of the domestic delivery companies are facing mergers or restructuring.
Logistics industry three bottlenecks to be cracked
China's logistics industry is currently facing three major bottlenecks.
First, the transport system must change, road transport to high-quality energy transport low value-added products, the situation is difficult to sustain, coal, ore, cement and other commodities must be transported mainly by rail transport.At present, the tonnage transportation cost of road transport is three times that of the railway, and there is an upward trend.From the perspective of green logistics, the railway transport capacity must be improved as soon as possible, so the construction of high-speed railway network still need to maintain a greater intensity, rapid passenger network formation will enable the full release of railway freight capacity.
Second, the integration of logistics enterprises need to speed up.The current number of logistics enterprises up to 632 million, while the team size of only 13 million, an average of only two companies each car, such a decentralized operation is difficult to achieve high efficiency operation, integration will be an important theme in the next few years.It should be noted that each vehicle behind the vehicle, are a number of people's survival problems, integration will be a long-term process, we must gradually rely on market forces to achieve, the administrative means of forced integration is difficult to play.
Third, the problem of high taxes and fees so that logistics enterprises overwhelmed, the need for government departments to take a number of optimization support policies, in fact, this is the logistics industry bottlenecks in the most easily break the link.Take transport logistics enterprises, for example, the current proportion of overpass has accounted for one-third of the total operating costs.
Logistics and Purchasing Federation statistics, fuel prices and labor costs and other factors, in 2010 the main business cost of logistics enterprises increased by 31% over the previous year.Among them, the transportation cost increased by 19.2%, which directly affected the cost of the main business by 10.2 percentage points; the storage cost increased by 23.4%; the relatively rapid development of information and related service cost and integrated logistics business cost increased by 136.6% and 61.8% respectively. The proportion of small, affecting the cost of the main business growth of 0.1 and 1.4 percentage points.
The rapid development of China's e-commerce so that more consumers choose online shopping and mail order, logistics companies may bring new opportunities.Data show that Chinese Internet users set off e-commerce boom, the number of participants has been up to 300 million or so.In 2010, China's e-commerce market turnover reached 4.5 trillion yuan, an increase of 22%.Which online retail transactions reached 51.11 billion yuan, up 97.3% year on year.Market participants expect the next two years, the scale of online retail market transactions is expected to exceed 1 trillion yuan, accounting for the proportion of total social retail sales from the current 3% to 5% or more.